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China and Romania (En)

I. Bilateral Political Relations

China and Romania established diplomatic relations on October 5, 1949 and exchanged ambassadors in March 1950. For a long time, the two countries maintained close relations of friendship and cooperation.

From the 1950s to the 1980s, the Party and state leaders of the two countries exchanged frequent visits. Listed below are the main Romanian leaders who visited China: The two first secretaries of the Romanian Workers’ Party Central Committee Gheoghe Apostol and Gheoghe Gheorghiu-Dej visited China in 1954 and 1956 respectively, and the latter led a delegation to attend the Eighth National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC). Ion Maurer, a member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party (RCP) and chairman of the Council of Ministers, visited China four times in 1964,1966,1967 and 1969. N. Ceausescu, general secretary of the RCP Central Committee and president of Romania, visited China on five occasions 1971,1978,1982,1985 and 1988. The three premiers of Romania Manea Manescu, Ilie Verdet and Constantin Dascalescu visited China in 1978,1980 and 1983 respectively.

And listed below are the main Chinese leaders who visited Romania: The vice chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Zhu De and the member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee Peng Zhen attended respectively the Second and Third Congress of the Romanian Workers' Party in 1955 and 1960. Zhou Enlai, vice chairman of the CPC Central Committee and premier of the State Council, attended the funeral of Gheorghe Gheoghiu-Dej, first secretary of the Romanian Workers' Party Central Committee, in 1965 and headed a Party and Government delegation to visit Romania in 1966. The general secretary of the CPC Central Committee Deng Xiaoping, the member of the Political Bureau, and member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee and vice premier of the State Council Wan Li, and the member of the Political Bureau and secretary of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee Qiao Shi attended the 9th, 13th and 14th Congress of the Romanian Communist Party in 1965, 1984 and 1989 respectively. Li Xiannian went to Romania to attend celebrations of the 20th and 30th anniversary of the Liberation of Romania in 1964 and 1974 in his capacity as vice premier and went there again as the Chinese president in 1984 to attend the celebrations of the 40th anniversary of the Liberation of Romania. In 1978, the chairman of the CPC Central Committee and premier of the State Council Hua Guofeng visited Romania. In 1983, General Secretary Hu Yaobang visited Romania, and in 1986, Premier Zhao Ziyang paid a visit to Romania.

The two countries and two peoples have always sympathized with and supported each other. In 1970 when Romania suffered serious floods, the Chinese Government provided Romania with free material aid. At the 26th session of the UN General Assembly in October 1971, Romania as a co-sponsor country voted for the resolution calling for restoration of all the lawful rights of China in the United Nations and the immediate expulsion of the representatives of the Kuomingtang clique from the UN and all its agencies. In the early 1970s, Romania did a great deal of work for the improvement of Sino-US relations.

At the end of 1989, a sudden change occurred in the political situation of Romania and Ceausescu’s political power was overthrown. The National Salvation Front Committee, which was formed on December 22, 1989, took over state power and adopted the multi-party system and the system of separation of powers between the executive, legislative and judiciary. On December 27, Chinese President Yang Shangkun, Premier Li Peng and Foreign Minister Qian Qichen sent respectively messages congratulation to Ion Iliescu, P. Roman and S. Cierak on their assumption of offices as Chairman of the Romanian National Salvation Front Committee, Prime Minister and Foreign Minister. They expressed China's respect for the choice made by the Romanian people and the desire to continue to maintain and develop friendly relations with Romania on the basis of the five principles of peaceful co-existence. The new Romanian government indicated that it will continue to abide by all the political and economic agreements reached with China and continue to uphold the one China position.

In January 1991, Romanian President Ion Iliescu paid a state visit to China. General Secretary Jiang Zemin and President Yang Shangkun met with him separately, and Premier Li Peng held talks with him. Both sides expressed that they will continue to develop the existing relations of traditional friendship and cooperation transcending differences in their ideologies and social systems. During the visit, the two sides signed four documents including a consular treaty. In September the same year, State Councilor and Foreign Minister Qian Qichen visited Romania. In April 1993, Romanian State Minister and Foreign Minister visited China. The two foreign ministers signed the protocol on cooperation between the foreign ministries of the two countries. In September the same year, Vice Premier and Foreign Minister Qiang Qichen paid a second visit to Romania. In March 1994, President Iliescu paid a working visit to Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Guangzhou.

In July 1994, Premier Li Peng paid an official visit to Romania at the invitation of the Romanian President and Prime Minister. Romanian President Iliescu and Prime Minister N. Vacaroiu held talks with Premier Li Peng. During the visit, Premier Li Peng set forth the four basic principles of the Chinese Government towards the countries of Eastern Europe, namely, respect for the choice of the people of every country and non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries; development of traditional friendship and co-existence in peace and friendship; strengthening mutually beneficial cooperation and seeking common development and prosperity; and support for peaceful resolution of disputes and promotion of regional stability. Premier Li Peng signed with President Iliescu the Joint Statement of China and Romania on Mutual Relations of Friendship and Cooperation. The two sides also signed the trade and economic agreement between the two Governments and other four documents..

In July 1995, Romanian Prime Minister Vacaroiu paid an official visit to China. In October, President Jiang Zemin met with President Iliescu in New York, where he was attending the activities to mark the 50th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations. In November, the member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee Hu Jintao paid an official visit to Romania. Comrade Hu Jintao emphasized that the Chinese Government, the Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese people wish to work together with the Romanian Government, all political parties and people of various circles to carry the Sino-Romanian friendly relationship into the 21st century, and the Communist Party of China wishes to continue to develop relations with various political parties of Romania on the four principles of independence, complete equality, mutual respect and non-interference in each others internal affairs.

From June 29 to July 2, 1996 President Jiang Zemin paid a state visit to Romania. President Jiang held talks with President Iliescu, and met the speakers of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies and the prime minister. The two sides signed the Sino-Romanian joint statement, the notes to be exchanged on the provision of grants by the Chinese Government to the Romanian Government, the agreement on scientific and technological cooperation between the two Governments and the extradition treaty between China and Romania. During the talks, both sides stressed that the Sino-Romanian relations should be approached and handled with a view to the 21st century, the exchanges and cooperation between the departments and in various fields should be reinforced and the relations of friendship and cooperation between the two countries should be raised to a new level.

In the general election held in November 1996, Emil Constantinescu, chairman of the Democratic Consultative Alliance, was elected to the office of president. President Jiang Zemin sent a message of congratulation to President Constantinescu. In September 1997, President Constantinescu paid a state visit to China. President Jiang Zemin held talks with President Constantinescu, and Premier Li Peng and NPC Standing Committee Chairman Qiao Shi met with him separately. The two sides signed a joint communiqué and four other documents. President Constatinescu reaffirmed Romania’s one-China stand on the question of Taiwan.

The Chinese National People's Congress and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference maintain good relations of cooperation with the Romanian Senate and Chamber of Deputies. The vice chairmen of the Chinese NPC Standing Committee Peng Chong and Li Peiyao visited Romania in October 1991 and October 1995 respectively. The two speakers of the Romanian Chamber of Deputies and A. Nastase also visited China in July 1992 and December 1993 respectively. The vice chairwoman of the National Committee of the CPPCC Qian Zhenying visited Romania in October 1994. In November 1995, the speaker of the Romanian Senate O. Gherman visited China. In May 1998, the chairman of the National Committee of the CPPCC Li Ruihuan paid an official friendly visit to Romania. In September of the same year, Romanian Senate Speaker P. Roman paid a return visit to China. In July 1999, the speaker of the Romanian Chamber of Deputies Diaconescu visited China at the invitation of the Chinese National People's Congress. In June 2000, NPC Standing Committee Vice Chairman Buhe visited Romania at the invitation of the Chamber of Deputies of Romania. In July of the same year, Romanian Senate Speaker Mincea Ionescu-Quintus visited China at the invitation of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference.

II. Economic and Trade Relations

China and Romania began to carry out economic and technological cooperation from 1970. During the 1970s, China provided Romania with interest-free loans in the form of commodities, convertible foreign exchanges and complete sets of plant equipment. In 1978, the two countries set up the Inter-Government Committee of Economic and Technological Cooperation with regular meetings to be held annually. In 1994, it was renamed the Inter-Government Economic and Trade Committee.

The trade volume between the two countries reached US$1.094 billion in 1979, which was a historical record, and gradually decreased and stayed in the area of US$0.2-0.3 billion, touching the lowest point of US$0.191 billion in 1999. And in 2000, the trade volume was US$0.298 billion.

At present, there are more than 5000 Chinese companies registered in Romania with a total investment of US$41 million.

III. Scientific and Technological, Cultural and Educational Relations

China and Romania have all along maintained a stable and fine relationship of cooperation in science and technology. In 1953, the two countries signed the first agreement on cooperation in science and technology to be followed by the establishment of the Inter-Government Scientific and Technological Cooperation Committee. At the 35th regular meeting of the Committee held in Bucharest in June 1999, the two sides signed 66 projects of cooperation in agriculture, chemical industry, geology and mining, light industry, biology and metallurgy.

With regard to cultural cooperation, China and Romania signed three agreements in 1952, 1965 and 1994 respectively. In additional to government-to-government cultural exchanges, the two sides also vigorously encouraged and supported people-to-people exchanges in recent years, and the number of the mutual visits by cultural delegations and groups reached twenty or so in each year. In September 2000, the two sides signed the 2001-2004 program of cultural exchanges between the two Governments.

The education departments of China and Romania have signed a series of agreements on educational cooperation over a long period of time, and the major agreements are those concerning the exchanges of educational delegations, students, teachers and experiences, and the direct cooperation between institutions of higher learning. In April 1998, the education ministries of the two countries signed the agreement on educational exchanges and cooperation for the period from 1998 to 2001. In pursuance of the agreement, each side at present provides the other with 22 scholarships. In July 1995, the Chinese State Education Commission and the Romanian Ministry of Education signed the agreement on the mutual recognition of record of schooling, diplomas and certificates of higher education. From 1952-1999, China accepted 239 Romanian students in all.

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